Y. Bram. University of Dubuque.
The rash was evanescent (it disappeared) generic vasodilan 20mg on line arteria dorsalis scapulae, moved to different locations, didn’t itch, and looked like measles. The pattern of clinical symptoms, especially the timing and the detailed description of the rash described by Jessica’s mother, the persistent arthritis lasting more than six weeks, then disappearing and reappearing months later for several weeks, and the prior lab work that ruled out infections, cancers, and other types of arthritis was speciﬁc enough information for Dr. Jessica had a rare form of juvenile arthritis that has a systemic onset (bodywide illness besides simply joint inﬂammation). It is self-limited and usually runs a benign course over a period of weeks. It affects twenty-ﬁve thousand to ﬁfty thousand children in the United States and accounts for 10–20 percent of all cases of juvenile arthri- tis. That one detail made a huge dif- ference in determining the correct diagnosis. Also, the classic tests for rheumatoid arthri- tis are usually negative, as Jessica’s were. Treatment of Still’s disease is directed toward the individual areas of inﬂammation. Many symptoms can be controlled with anti-inﬂammatory drugs, such as aspirin or other nonsteroidal drugs. Cortisone medications (steroids), such as prednisone, are used to treat more severe features of the illness. For those with persistent symptoms, medications that affect the 194 Diagnosing Your Mystery Malady inﬂammatory aspects of the immune system are used. Because of her mother’s diligence in working through the Eight Steps, Jessica didn’t have to suffer too long without the proper diagnosis or treatment. Case Study: David Eight-year-old David’s tooth problems probably had their origins in infancy. He would fall asleep with the bottle in his mouth at naptime and at night. David’s pediatrician surmised that the sugar in the milk lingered in David’s mouth and caused his teeth to decay. As a result, the little boy had ﬁllings in his teeth begin- ning at the age of three. As his decaying baby teeth fell out one by one and began to be replaced by permanent ones, everyone rejoiced at the chance to be proactive and pre- vent any further tooth decay. He got his new teeth cleaned regularly and the dentist applied a protective coating to his teeth to prevent cavities. But after all he had been through, David was so nervous about getting any new cav- ities that he avoided most sweets and took his toothbrush wherever he went. As he grew older, his mother, Hilary, allowed him to have artiﬁcially sweet- ened drinks, desserts, and gum so he wouldn’t have to feel so deprived next to the other kids. Other than tooth decay, David was a healthy boy with only the usual array of common childhood diseases like colds, occasional ear infections, and a hefty case of whooping cough. Starting inexplicably at about age seven, he began having a constant runny nose, stomachaches, and diarrhea. On some days, the diarrhea was so bad he was afraid to go to school because he had once soiled his pants when he couldn’t make it to the restroom on time. The pediatrician, who at ﬁrst thought he was looking at a stomach virus, soon became concerned with the chronicity of the symptoms. This specialist eliminated all the usual causes of diarrhea in children including E. He ruled out parasites like giardia and cryptosporidium and even rotavirus. He had David’s blood tested for hemolytic-uremic syndrome, which was nega- tive, and as a last resort ordered a series of upper and lower gastrointestinal tests to rule out anything more serious. When all of these tests turned out negative, he suggested David should see an allergist to determine if there were any food allergies. The pediatric allergist guessed David might be allergic to the milk he so adored because his symptoms were a common indication of a milk allergy. She performed a number of tests that revealed that David had devel- oped an allergy to milk and milk products. The allergist told Hilary that once she eliminated these products from her son’s diet, his gastrointestinal symptoms would most probably disappear. Hilary followed the doctor’s orders, and interestingly enough, while David’s runny nose stopped, the stomachaches and diarrhea did not.
Treatment Options for ACL Injuries The two options to consider with the nine-year-old patient who tears his ACL is restriction of activity and the use of a brace until skeletal maturity buy generic vasodilan 20 mg line pulse pressure values. Then consider an intra-articular reconstruction versus an early reconstruction using the semitendinosus graft and button ﬁxation. ACL/MCL Injuries The management of the combined ACL/MCL injury is controversial. This is a common injury seen among skiers who catch an inside edge and externally rotate the knee. Shelbourne has advocated initial con- servative treatment of the MCL, followed by ACL reconstruction as indicated. Our current protocol at the Sports Medicine Clinic is to treat the MCL with an extension splint, or brace, until it is stable. Then the patient works to regain range of motion and strength, after which recon- struction of the ACL, if necessary, can be performed. After the medial collateral ligament heals, the degree of partial healing of the ACL is usually sufﬁciently stable for recreational activities. The dilemma occurs when there is residual laxity of both the MCL and the ACL. In this situation, the patient will have signiﬁcant symp- toms with pivotal activity. The treatment is a custom-made functional brace with double upright support. If there are still instability symptoms, reconstruction of the ACL must be performed. The course of the ligament may be picked with an awl to produce bleeding and microfracture of the ligament attachment. The attachment site of the MCL on the femur may be removed with an osteotomy and countersunk into the femur about 1cm to shorten the ligament. The posterior capsule is plicated to this post of retensioned liga- ment. In severe cases of laxity, the ligament is shortened and reinforced with an autograft or allograft of semitendinosus. A brace must be used in the postoperative protocol to protect this MCL reconstruction for a prolonged period. Osteoarthritis and the ACL Deﬁcient Knee There are three clinical presentations with combined ACL laxity and medial compartment osteoarthritis. The ﬁrst is the patient with prima- rily ACL laxity symptoms; that is, recurrent giving way and mild activ- ity related pain. The second is the patient with more severe osteoarthritis and ACL Nonoperative Management Protocol 39 laxity. The symptoms are pain and giving way associated with a varus knee and medial compartment narrowing on the standing X-rays. This patient should be managed with a combined ACL reconstruction and tibial osteotomy done at the same sitting. It is acceptable to stage the osteotomy as the initial procedure, followed by the ligament recon- struction six months later. The third scenario is the patient with advanced medial compartment osteoarthritis and residual ACL laxity. The injury usually is long standing; the knee is in varus, but lacks exten- sion. The closing wedge osteotomy of Coven- try has been the standard, but the opening wedge osteotomy is becom- ing popular. Nonoperative Management Protocol The nonoperative treatment of the acute injury consists of the following: Extension splint and crutches. The length of time on crutches will depend on the degree of associated meniscal capsular injury. Nautilus or gym program to strengthen the muscles with machines and to improve the cardiovascular ﬁtness with steppers and bikes. Note that Martinek has shown that knee bracing is not required after ACL reconstruction.
Several measurement scales are available generic vasodilan 20 mg with mastercard pulse pressure 49, such as the International Knee Documentation Committee form or IKDC. When the outcome measurements are made on this scale, they can be interpreted by anyone. At the present time, only 43% of the members of the ACL study group use this form; most say that the form is not user friendly. We must continue to strive for a universal system that will make it easier to judge the success of different types of treatment of the ACL injured knee. The Future The current surgical technique of autogenous graft harvest, with tunnel preparation, will change very little. The changes will come in the evo- lution of graft ﬁxation with bioabsorbable materials. The graft of the future will be a synthetic collagen scaffold selected off the shelf and injected with ﬁbroblastic cells to produce collagen in vivo. The profession will look back on the patellar tendon not as the gold standard, but as a barbaric procedure! Patellofemoral problems after intraarticular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Patellar tendon versus doubled semitendinosus and gracilis tendons for anterior cruciate ligament recon- struction. Knee injury patterns among men and women in collegiate basketball and soccer. Flipped patellar tendon autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Comparison of patella tendon versus patella tendon/Kennedy ligament augmentation device for anterior cruciate liga- ment reconstruction: study of results, morbidity, and complications. Long-term follow-up of 53 cases of chronic lesion of the anterior cruciate ligament treated with an artiﬁcial Dacron Stryker ligament. A comparison of results in middle-aged and young patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The use of hamstring tendons for ante- rior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The natural history of conservatively treated partial anterior cruciate ligament tears. Quadrupled semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 5-year results in patients without meniscus loss. In: Knee Ligaments: Structure, Function, Injury, and Repair, Akeson WHA, Daniel DM, and O’Connor JJ (eds. Patellar tendon or Leeds-Keio graft in the surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. A method to help reduce the risk of serious knee sprains incurred in alpine skiing. The natural history and diagnosis of anterior cruciate lig- ament insufﬁciency. Semitendinosus tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with LAD augmentation. Follow-up study of Gore-Tex artiﬁcial ligament– special emphasis on tunnel osteolysis. An alternative cruciate reconstruction graft: The central quadriceps tendon. Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies. Hamstring tendon grafts for recon- struction of the anterior cruciate ligament: Biomechanical evaluation of the use of multiple strands and tensioning techniques. The effect of neuromuscular training on the incidence of knee injuries in female athletes. Failure of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament due to impingement by the intercondylar roof.
X Comprehensive and thorough background research and literature review has been undertaken buy discount vasodilan 20 mg online arteria nutrients ulnae. X There is a good match between the issues to be ad- dressed and the approach being adopted. X The researcher demonstrates relevant background knowledge and/or experience. X Timetable, resources and budget have all been worked out thoroughly, with most eventualities covered. REASONS WHY RESEARCH PROPOSALS FAIL X Aims and objectives are unclear or vague. X There is a mismatch between the approach being adopted and the issues to be addressed. X The overall plan is too ambitious and diﬃcult to achieve in the timescale. X The researcher does not seem to have conducted en- ough in-depth background research. X Information about the data analysis method is insuﬃ- ciently detailed. X This topic has been done too many times before – in- dicates a lack in background research. SUMMARY X Most research projects will require the production of a research proposal which sets out clearly and succinctly your proposed project. X Before you write your proposal, check whether you need to produce it in a speciﬁc format. X The standard research proposal should include the fol- lowing: – title – background (including literature search) – aims and objectives – methodology/methods – timetable – budget and resources – dissemination. X Research proposals stand a better chance of being ac- cepted if you’re able to prove that you have the re- quired knowledge and/or experience to carry out the research eﬀectively. X It is important to make sure that your proposed meth- ods will address the problem you have identiﬁed and that you are able to display an understanding of these methods. For each type you will need to think about how you are going to record the interview, what type of questions you need to ask, how you intend to establish rapport and how you can probe for more information. METHODS OF RECORDING If you’ve decided that interviewing is the most appropriate method for your research, you need to think about what sort of recording equipment you’re going to use. You should think about this early on in your research as you need to become familiar with its use through practice. Even if you decide not to use tape-recording equipment, and instead use pen and paper, you should practice taking notes in an interview situation, making sure that you can maintain eye contact and write at the same time. If, how- ever, you’re conducting a structured interview, you will probably develop a questionnaire with boxes to tick as your method of recording (see Chapter 9). This is perhaps the simplest form of recording, although you will have to be familiar with your questionnaire, to make sure you can do it quickly and eﬃciently. A battery indicator light is crucial – it enables you to check that the recording continues throughout the inter- view without drawing attention to the machine. A recorder which automatically turns at the end of the tape is useful as you can have twice as long uninterrupted interviewing. They can run out very quickly and this will have an inﬂuence on the quality of recording. X Is the room free from background noise, such as traf- ﬁc, noisy central heating systems and drink machines? It is important to hear your own voice as well as that of the interviewee so that you know what answers have been given to which questions. T R M R elyonequi pment–i fi tfai lsyouh ave no vercome equi pmentfai lure bypracti ce T ape recorder anconcentrate onli steni ng tow h atth ey record ofi ntervi ew. A ble to mai ntai neye contact asyoush ould because i t’sbei ng recorded. H ave a complete record ofi ntervi ew for ould tak e a few notesasw ell–h elpsyou Some i ntervi ew eesmaybe nervousoftape- tow ri te dow ni mportanti ssuesand you analysi s i ncludi ng w h ati ssai d and recorders i nteracti onbetw eeni ntervi ew erand w i ll h ave some record i fequi pmentfai ls i ntervi ew ee. H ave plentyofuseful quotati onsforreport V i deo recorder P roducesth e mostcompreh ensi ve recordi ng T h e more equi pmentyouuse th e more ch ances fyouw anttouse vi deo equi pmenti ti s ofani ntervi ew. Note- tak i ng on’th ave to relyonrecordi ng equi pment annotmai ntai neye contactall th e ti me. I ntervi ew eesmayth i n th eyh ave someth i ng W i ll noth ave manyverbati mquotati onsfor i mportanttosayi fth eyseeyoutak i ng notes ﬁnal report –w h i le youw ri te th eymayadd more i nformati on B ox- ti ck i ng Si mple to use.
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