By G. Gorn. University of Washington.
It is valued primarily for its functional stimulant properties cheap decadron 1mg fast delivery acne 7dpo, rather than for pleasure or recreation per se. Caffeine’s widespread non-harmful—indeed, largely benefcial—con- sumption is mirrored in the widespread use of low potency cocaine preparations; for example, coca leaf chewing and coca tea in the Andean regions of South America. It should be noted that the legality of this remains contentious in international law (see: page 34). Similar localised patterns of stimulant use exist elsewhere, including khat use in Somali speaking Africa, and betel nut use in South Asia and the Pacifc. These are both associated with more clearly documented public health concerns than coca or caffeine drinks, but remain legal in their respective locales. There is a signifcant set of behaviours that involves recreational stim- ulant use in social contexts. These behaviours are driven either by the pleasure of stimulant use itself, or as a quasi-functional adjunct to a social behaviour. Such functional motivations include staying awake into the night, enhancing confdence and alertness in social interac- tions, providing the energy to dance for longer, and so on. Inevitably this involves higher dosage, although generally less frequent, consump- tion than more obviously functional/lifestyle use. As such, it presents a different set of risks and challenges—not least because the user popula- tion is largely made up of young people. Among these populations there is considerable fexibility in stimulant using behaviours. They can be easily substituted depending on taste or availability, and are often used in combination. Even though such patterns of use present increased risk levels, they are for the most part 67 not associated with signifcant personal or social harms. Use is gener- ally occasional, moderate and contained by social norms that emerge amongst using and non-using peer groups in a social context. These norms are further tempered by personal controls, based on both experi- ence and informed understanding of usage risks. Movement towards lower risk products and prepara- tions (lower dose, slower release, orally administered), more informed and lower risk using behaviours (moderation—including abstinence— avoiding poly-drug use/bingeing, supporting peers, etc. Finally there is the subset of the above users who will progress into chaotic, dependent or otherwise problematic stimulant use. Such behaviour is often concurrent with problematic use of other non- stimulant drugs, commonly including opiates and alcohol. For these populations, the most effective response is more medically orien- tated. In particular, it requires regulated supply models to focus on harm reduction (essentially as described above), combined with appropriate provision of treatment/recovery services, plus relevant holistic social support. Different preparations run from negligible-risk orally consumed coca leaf and coca tea, through moderate-risk snorted cocaine powder (the salt of cocaine; cocaine-hydrochloride), to high-risk smoked crack (cocaine base). Cocaine related risks and harms are also signifcantly determined by using behaviours. Cocaine-related problems are widely perceived to be more common and more severe for intensive, high-dosage users and very rare and much less severe for occasional, low-dosage users. Problematic crack users are at the hard end of chaotic drug use, and cause a disproportionate amount of secondary harms to society. Given this, how do we manage or attempt to regulate a drug like crack 121 1 2 3 Introduction Five models for regulating drug supply The practical detail of regulation cocaine, which is most associated with uncontrolled use, chaos and danger? The answer, as elsewhere, is to begin by moving beyond over- simplifed solutions that have, over the years, demonstrably failed to produce effective outcomes. Despite the best efforts of criminal justice enforcement, and others engaged in conventional prevention, crack dependence is a problem that has not been eradicated. Given this, we need to accept the reality that some people want to and will use crack, however distasteful such an acceptance may be.
A network collaboration implementing technology to improve medication dispensing and administration in critical access hospitals generic decadron 0.5mg mastercard acne neck. Effect of computer order entry on prevention of serious medication errors in hospitalized children. Association of interruptions with an increased risk and severity of medication administration errors. Medication administration technologies and patient safety: a mixed-method systematic review. They usually reflect the consensus on the optimal treatment options within a health system and aim at beneficially influencing prescribing behaviour at all levels of care. Health systems, particularly in developing countries, are faced with growing health needs on one hand and limited resources on the other. Policy makers at various levels are therefore engaged in designing cost-effective health interventions that ensure accessible and affordable quality care for all, in particular the poor and vulnerable groups. Inappropriate prescribing is one of the manifestations of irrational medication use behaviour. It occurs when medicines are not prescribed in accordance with guidelines that are based on scientific evidence to ensure safe, effective, and economic use. For our growing National Health Insurance Scheme, a standard treatment guideline is seen as a cost containment tool to ensure that inefficiencies, fraud and poly-pharmacy, often associated with Health Insurance Schemes, are minimised. This process includes gaining acceptance of the concept and preparing the text for wide consultation and consensus building. This is to ensure that users identify with and collectively own the process of development. Great effort has been put into aligning the prevailing health insurance benefits package to this edition. This edition is also available on compact disk and can be accessed on the internet at www. The Ministry of Health is particularly grateful to its development partners for their continuous support for the health sector. I am confident that all users of this document would find this edition very useful. Telephone number: 030- 2229 621, 030-2233 200, 030-2235 100, 030-2225 502 Fax number: 030- 2229 794 Website: www. Edith Andrews-Annan National Professional Officer, Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy, Ghana Management Sciences for Health Mr. Achieving these objectives require a comprehensive strategy that, not only includes supply and distribution, but also appropriate and thoughtful prescribing, dispensing and use of medicines. The Ministry of Health since 1983 has been publishing a list of Essential Drugs with Therapeutic Guidelines to aid the rational use of drugs. This document has been reviewed in response to new knowledge on drugs and diseases and changes in the epidemiology of diseases in Ghana. The Ministry has also produced separate guidelines for specific disease control programmes, diseases and identifiable health providers. The Standard Treatment Guidelines have been prepared as a tool to assist and guide prescribers (including doctors, medical assistants, and midwives), pharmacists, dispensers, and other healthcare staff who prescribe at primary care facilities in providing quality care to patients. The guidelines list the preferred treatments for common health problems experienced by people in the health system and were subjected to stakeholder discussions before being finalised to ensure that the opinion of the intended users were considered and incorporated. The guidelines are designed to be used as a guide to treatment choices and as a reference book to help in the overall management of patients, such as when to refer. The guidelines are meant for use at all levels within the health system, both public and private. It is recognised that the treatment guidance detailed in this book may differ from the reader’s current practice. It is emphasised that the choices described here have the weight of scientific evidence to support them, together with the collective opinion of a wide group of recognised national and international experts. The recommendations have been rated on the following basis: Evidence rating A – requires at least one randomised control trial as part of a body of scientific literature of overall good quality and consistency addressing the specific recommendation.
Ihas a strong tone of inntional non-compliance buy decadron 0.5 mg amex acne quick treatment, buthere is also a possibility to inrprethis to mean non-inntional non-compliance. The firsquestion (I have also tried to save money by diminishing the use of antihypernsive medication. The second question (The pharmacy staff have paid atntion to the facthaI don�use my antihypernsive medication exactly as prescribed) do nospecify the kind of non-compliance inquired in these questions or the time period. The third question (I haven�taken my antihypernsive medication recently, and they haven�paid any atntion to iin the health centre. Furthermore, iconcentras clearly on inntional non-compliance, budoes nospecify imore precisely. The fourth question (They have paid atntion to my irregular use of antihypernsive medication in the health centre. Thus, the combination variable of these questions represents mainly inntional compliance. In these studies, the prevalences of non-compliance based on self-reporby the patients were nohigh. However, the non-compliance prevalences based on self-repormusbe regarded as conservative estimas of the true level of non-compliance (Morris and Schulz 1992, Rudd 1995). All the compliance questions discussed above, however, clearly approach compliance in the area of antihypernsive medication-taking. Furthermore, despi their limitations, self-repormeasures representhe average quality of currencompliance research and thus offer inresting possibilities for research. Blood pressure In the pharmacy-based study, iwas nopossible to dermine how many patients really had a personal blood pressure card and how many actually based their answers on memory. However, according to the results of a study where patients checked and repord their blood pressures, iseems thathe patienis a reliable source of blood pressure readings, aleaswhen memory problems do noconfuse the results (Cheng eal 2002). Thus, possible memory problems may have caused inaccuracy in the blood pressure readings. In the pharmacy-based study, the limifor poor blood pressure was older (160/90 mmHg or more), i. In the primary health care based study, the accuracy of blood pressure measurements depends on the trained health nurses measuring the blood pressure. The differenskills of each nurse can cause variability in the blood pressure readings. Furthermore, the inaccuracy of the device, the circumstances of measurement, the lack of resbefore measuremenand many other factors may cause errors the blood pressure measuremen(Beevers eal. In fact, when an adequa number of questions were asked, practically every hypernsive patienseemed to have experienced these problems. Furthermore, our finding aboufive problems per patienalso indicas the large prevalence of these problems, and iseems obvious thathe treatmenof hypernsion is today far from optimal. Perceived problems relad to the health care sysm and personnel This study showed thanine ouof 10 hypernsive patients had perceived health care sysm relad problems. The high prevalence of lack of follow-up by the health centre shows one major aspecof antihypernsive treatmentharequires more atntion. The majority of these patients repord thatheir visits to a nurse or a doctor because of hypernsion had remained under their own discretion. Thus, our presensysm of health care needs to be improved by involving all hypernsive patients in regular follow-up. There should be a functional sysm of reminders in appointment-making or control visits for possible drop-outs. Appropria information and reinforcemencould prevenmany other problems in the treatmenof hypernsion, buwe lack a clear agreemenon the responsibilities between the differenprofessional groups in health care. Watkins eal (1987) repord thaan information bookleabouhypernsion, which was mailed to the patients, was continued to be in regular use by one-fifth of the patients afr a year. Howard eal (1999) repord thaover three- quarrs of the patients ranked 15 of the 22 information ims aboumedicines as importanin the inrview. However, when information is provided to hypernsive patients, the quality of information is very important. In two-thirds of the leaflets, hypernsion was noxplained in the conxof the overall cardiovascular risk. The importance of continued monitoring was noxplained in over half of the leaflets.
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